Articles / Archaeological monuments

Archaeological monuments

Subject / Relics

Archaeological monuments of the Leningrad Oblast are settlements, grads, burial grounds, religious objects and other material trails of the past. Settling the oblast territory took place during the Mesolithic period. The age of the most ancient relic from Antrea (now it is the town of Kamennogorsk) is more then 9000 years. Ceramics and bone items, collected during the New Syas Canal construction and at the site of Berezye of the Volkhov district, date to the New Stone Age. The early New Stone Age (the 5000 B.C.) is presented with sites of the Narva Culture (Syabersky III in the Luga district) and with ceramics of the Sperrings type. The Pit-Comb Ware culture (late 4000 BC to early 2000 BC) date to the developed Neolithic period. Items, found on the archaelogical dig of the sample settlement Ust-Rybezhna I in Ladoga Lake coast, are noted for their high undamaged state. From 2000 BC to 1000 BC the Finno-Ugric ancestors came into these lands from the Upper Volga region. The Finno-Ugric settlements, dated the Bronze Age, were found on banks of the Volkhov and Pasha Rivers, in some other districts of the oblast. In the basin of the Luga River upperstream there are burial monuments of the Culture of long barrows (the second half of AD 1000). Few archeological finds make possible to date the earliest burials to the 5th century. The Ilmen Slavs were settling in the Luga River region and on the Volkhov River banks in the 8th-10th centuries AD. Mounds, made by them (monumental burial mounds), became the dominants of the historical landscape. The appearance of farming and first fortified ancient settlements (gorodishche) (30 fortified ancient settlements of the 9th-15th centuries are known in the Leningrad Oblast territory) date to this period. Ladoga Settlement (now it is Statraya Ladoga Village), the most ancient urban settlement and the first capital of Russia, appeared at the cross of international trade ways in the middle of the 8th century AD. Researches of Ladoga gave valuable materials concerning the beginning of the Russian state system, about Slavonic-Finno-Scandinavian contacts. The Southern Ladoga Lake region burial mounds (kurgans) (late 9th to the early 13th centuries), made by the local Chud people, stand out for the burial ritual, finds of arms and adornments. Numerous old Russian burial mounds (the 10th-14th centuries) and zhalniks (sepulcrums) (the 12th-15th centuries), that replaced them, give the possible to follow the stages of the old Russian farming colonization of the Luga River region, the Izhora Hills, the north-eastern Chud lands, the culture of rural population. Soil burial mounds of the Vod, Izhora and Karela nations, which joined in allied and tributed relations with Novgorod City, were discovered along the coast of the Gulf of Finland, on the Izhora and Neva Rivers banks, in the Karelian Isthmus. Town-fortresses Koporye, Korela, Oreshek, Yam, built in the 13th-14th centuries, and Ivangorod fortress, built later, date to the Middle Age archaelogical sites. In the late third of the 19th and the early 20th centuries the region antiquities study was connected with the names of N.E. Brandenburg, L.K. Ivanovsky, A.A. Inostrantsev, N.K. Roerich, A.A. Spitsin, T. Shvindt and others. Between 1927-1931 the registration of monuments was made by the Comission on Archaelogical Study of the Leningrad Oblast at the State Academy of the Material Culture History. In the 1930-1950s the archaelogical sites of the Leningrad Oblast were studied by V.I. Ravdonikas, N.N. Gurina. From the 1970s researches were continued by the exprditions under the leadership of A.N. Kirpichnikov, G.S. Lebedev, E.A. Ryabinin and others.

Plotkin, Konstantin Moiseyevich

Brandenburg, Nikolay Yefimovich
Gurina, Nina Nikolayevna
Inostrantsev, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich
Ivanovsky, Lev Konstantinovich
Kirpichnikov, Anatoly Nikolayevich
Lebedev, Gleb Sergeyevich
Ravdonikas, Vladislav Iosifovich
Roerich, Nikolay Konstantinovich
Ryabinin, Yevgeny Aleksandrovich
Schwindt, Theodor
Sorokin, Pyotr Yegorovich
Spitsyn, Aleksandr Andreyevich

Leningrad Oblast, the/Volkhov District/Berezye Village
Topographical landmarks/Gulf of Finland, the
Topographical landmarks/Izhora Hills, the
Topographical landmarks/Izhora River, the
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Kamennogorsk Town
Leningrad Oblast, the/Vyborg District/Kamennogorsk Town
Topographical landmarks/Karelian Isthmus, the
Topographical landmarks/Luga River, the
Topographical landmarks/Narva River, the
Topographical landmarks/Neva River, the
Topographical landmarks/Novy Syassky Canal, the
Topographical landmarks/Pasha River, the
Topographical landmarks/Prichudye North-eastern
Leningrad Oblast, the/Luga District/Staberskaya, village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volkhov District/Staraya Ladoga Village
Leningrad Oblast, the/Volkhov District/Ust-Rybezhno Village
Topographical landmarks/Volkhov River, the

Лебедев Г. С. Археологические памятники Ленинградской области. Л., 1977
Кирпичников А. Н. Каменные крепости Новгородской земли. Л., 1984
Кирпичников А. Н., Сарабьянов В. Д. Старая Ладога – древняя столица Руси. СПб. 1996
Рябинин Е. А. Водская земля Великого Новгорода. СПб., 2001.
Лапшин В.А. Археологическая карта Ленинградской области. Ч. 1-2. Л.; СПб. 1990-1995
Гурина Н.Н. Древняя история Северо-Запада Европейской части СССР. Материалы и исследования по археологии СССР. № 87. Л., 1961

Subject Index
Burial grounds of the Izhora people.
Burial grounds of the Karelian people.
Burial grounds of the Vod people.
Culture of Mounds
Ivangorod Fortress
Koporye Fortress
Korela, fortress, the
Kurgans (barrows) of the southern Ladoga Lake region.
Mesolithic monuments, The.
Neolithic monuments, The
Oreshek, see Schlusselburg Fortress
The Culture of long burial mounds (barrows)
Yamgorod Fortress
Zhalniks (sepulcrums).

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Ethnic groups if the Leningrad Oblast
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